Embedding quotes serves two purposes:

1. It allows us to include important information like who said the quote, who they were talking to, and what they were talking about.

2. It allows us to make quotes fit our own voices as writers. There are many ways you can fit embedded quotes into your own paragraphs, but here are a few examples of how you can use this format:

• According to Lennie, he likes beans “with ketchup” (12).

• George states that “Guys like us, that work on ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world” (15).

• Steinbeck says that Lennie is George’s “opposite” (4).

• George once remarked that ranch workers have no family: “They don’t belong no place” (15).

Punctuating Quotes Introductory information needs to be separated from the rest of the quote with a comma or the word that, but not both.

• Antigone says, “It is the dead, not the living, who make the longest demands” (1023).

• Antigone says that “It is the dead, not the living, who make the longest demands” (1023).

Page numbers for quotes need to come after the quote, but before the end punctuation. The period always comes after the page number, not before. However, a question mark or exclamation mark still needs to be included within a quote.

• Right: “Is it really the sun?” (35).

• Wrong: “Is it really the sun” (35)?

• Wrong: “Is it really the sun” (35).

Sometimes you will need to replace a pronoun with a proper name or make other small changes to quotes to get them to fit the context of your embedded quote. These changes should be made in brackets [ ].

• Original quote: “Kind of like he’s mad at ‘em because he ain’t a big guy” (26).

• Clarified quote: “Kind of like [Curley’s] mad at ‘em because he ain’t a big guy” (26).

DELETE SOME PARTS OF THE QUOTE:

 Sometimes you will want to omit/delete parts of a quote that are not necessary. These omissions should be marked with ellipses (...). Note: you only have to do this when the part of the omitted quote is in the middle of a sentence, not the beginning or the end.

• Original quote: “Kind of like he’s mad at ‘em because he ain’t a big guy” (26).

• Shortened quote: “He’s mad…because he ain’t a big guy” (26).

QUOTATION WITHIN A QUOTATION

If a quotation itself contains words in quotation marks, use single quotation marks around those words. • The breathless narrator exclaims, “Jack said, ‘You’re pretty,’ and I practically fainted. Then he said, ‘I like your shoes’!” (1).